Occurrence and pathogenicity of Graphium carbonarium on elm trees in Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran



In a survey on species diversity and 
phylogeny of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with 
bark beetle galleries and decline symptoms on woody 
hosts in the northwestern region of Iran, nine
synnematous fungal isolates with similar growth 
patterns were isolated from the bark beetle galleries 
on declining elm trees in Mazandaran, East, and West 
Azerbaijan provinces. Based on the integration of 
molecular phylogeny (ITS-rDNA region and tef1-α
gene sequences) with cultural and morphological 
characteristics, the isolates were identified as 
Graphium carbonarium. Pathogenicity test using an
excised shoot assay revealed that the isolates are 
pathogenic on Ulmus carpinifolia. Our study is the 
first occurrence and pathogenicity of G. carbonarium
from bark beetlae galleries on declining elm in the 


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