A review of taxonomic studies of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in Iran

Document Type : Review Article


VaDepartment of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan Iran lie Asr University



Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are 
one of the most essential beneficial soil 
microorganisms that can form a mutualistic 
symbiotic relationship with plants. AMF receive 
carbon from the host plant to complete their life 
cycle. In return, these fungi have copious roles for 
the host plants, including plant protection against 
pathogens, increasing abiotic stresses tolerance 
(drought and salinity), and enhancing water and 
mineral nutrient acquisition. Formerly, AMF was 
identified and classified merely based on 
morphological features of fungal spores such as 
mode of formation, wall structure, and subtending 
hyphal characteristics. Later on, molecular 
procedures were incorporated for AMF 
identification. PCR-based techniques led to the 
direct identification of AMF species that existed in 
plant roots or the rhizosphere. Several primers have 
been developed to increase the accuracy of AMF 
identification. Nowadays, classification systems of 
AMF are based on both morphological and 
molecular techniques. This paper aims to review the 
researches on the identification of AMF in Iran. 
Identification of AMF has received increasing 
interest over the past few decades. Authors have 
used a combination of morphological characteristics 
and DNA-based techniques to the identification of 
AMF. So far, more than 115 AMF species belonging 
to 22 genera have been identified and reported from 
different regions and plant communities such as 
croplands, forests, grasslands, etc. Understanding 
the community composition and diversity of AMF is 
vital for using them as biofertilizer in agriculture to 
reduce chemical inputs and increase sustainable crop